Measurements on radiographs of the foot in normal infants and children.

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Radiographs were made of the feet of seventy-four normal infants and children who ranged in age from six to 127 months, and various angles were measured. Means and deviations of the measurements were calculated for eleven clinically useful angles. On the anteroposterior radiographs the talocalcaneal, talus-first metatarsal, and calcaneus-fifth metatarsal angles were recorded, and on the lateral radiograph the talocalcaneal, tibiocalcaneal, tibiotalar, talus-first metatarsal, and talohorizontal angles were documented. On lateral radiographs that were made with the foot in maximum dorsiflexion, the talocalcaneal and tibiocalcaneal angles were documented and the talocalcaneal index was recorded. The mean values and the ranges of normal values changed with age. These data provide a standard for assessment of initial and residual deformity in patients who have club foot, vertical talus, metatarsus adductus, or other deformities.

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