Eighty-five legs in forty-four cadavera were dissected to determine the course of the superficial peroneal nerve from its origin to its termination as dorsal cutaneous nerves of the foot. Particular attention was paid to the relationship of the nerve with the intermuscular septum between the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg. In sixty-two (73 per cent) of the legs, the nerve coursed within the lateral muscle compartment from its origin to its exit through the crural fascia. In twelve (14 per cent) of the legs, the nerve had a variable course in the lateral compartment, crossed into the anterior compartment, and passed through the fascia. In ten (12 per cent) of the legs, the nerve divided in two, with branches in both the anterior and the lateral compartment. In one leg, the nerve never lay deep to the peroneus longus but ran along the deep surface of the fascia before exiting distally. The nerve or its branches passed through the fascia three to eighteen centimeters proximal to the lateral malleolus.