Hydroxyapatite-Coated Total Hip Femoral Components in Patients Less Than Fifty Years Old. Clinical and Radiographic Results After Five to Eight Years of Follow-up*

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Abstract

One hundred and thirty-three patients (152 hips) who were an average of thirty-nine years old (range, sixteen to forty-nine years old) received a proximally hydroxyapatite-coated femoral prosthesis as part of a total hip arthroplasty and were followed for a minimum of five years (average, 6.4 years; range, five to 8.3 years) or until revision. The average Harris hip score was 47 points (range, 22 to 77 points) preoperatively and 93 points (range, 49 to 100 points) at the time of the latest clinical evaluation. Two patients who had a well fixed femoral implant had activity-limiting pain in the thigh at the time of the most recent examination. Radiographic changes consistent with bone-remodeling (cortical hypertrophy and bone condensation) typically were seen around the mid-part of the shaft of the prosthesis. Forty-eight (32 per cent) of the 148 hips that were included in the radiographic analysis demonstrated a small amount of erosive scalloping in either zone 1 or zone 7 of Gruen et al., and intramedullary osteolysis was suspected in only one hip. All stems were radiographically osseointegrated according to a modification of the criteria described by Engh et al. Four stems were revised, but none of the revisions were performed because of mechanical failure (two stems were revised in conjunction with a revision of the cup because of pain; one, because of an infection; and one, after a traumatic femoral fracture that occurred six years postoperatively). Thus, the rates of aseptic and mechanical failure were both 0 per cent. The combined rate of failure, which included the two stems that were revised because of pain and the two stems that were associated with pain that limited activity, was 2.6 per cent (four of 152 stems). The over-all clinical results associated with hydroxyapatite-coated femoral components were excellent in this group of young patients after intermediate-term follow-up. A review of serial radiographs showed mechanically stable implants with osseous ingrowth, evidence of stress transmission at the middle part of the stem, and minimum endosteal osteolysis.

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