User's Guide to the Orthopaedic Literature: How to Use an Article About Prognosis


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Abstract

➤ Prognosis studies are investigations examining the possible outcomes of a disease or operative procedure and the probability with which they can be expected to occur.➤ Primary guides for assessing the validity (study methodology) of a prognosis study are:• Was there a representative sample of patients?• Were the patients sufficiently homogeneous with respect to prognostic risk? If not, did the investigators provide estimates for all clinically relevant subgroups?➤ Secondary guides for assessing the validity (study methodology) of a prognosis study are:Was follow-up sufficiently complete?Were objective and unbiased outcome criteria used?

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