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We report the results of cementless total hip arthroplasty with a tapered, rectangular titanium stem that was introduced in 1979 and continues to be used today with only minor changes. The aim of the design is to achieve primary stability to resist rotational and axial forces through precision rasping and press-fit implantation of a tapered, rectangular femoral component.Between October 1986 and November 1987, 208 total hip arthroplasties with insertion of a tapered, rectangular titanium stem and a threaded cup without cement were performed in 200 consecutive patients (average age, sixty-one years; range, twenty-two to eighty-four years).At the time of the latest follow-up, fifty-one patients (fifty-two hips) had died and sixteen patients had been lost to follow-up, leaving 133 patients. Twelve hips had been revised, two in patients who subsequently died, leaving 123 living patients without revision. The median follow-up time was 120.7 months. Five cups needed revision surgery because of aseptic loosening; two, because of massive polyethylene wear; one, because of posttraumatic migration; and one, because of breakage. Three femoral stems were revised: one because of malpositioning (the reoperation was done five days after implantation); one, because of infection; and the third, after multiple failed acetabular revisions. The mean Harris hip score for the patients who did not have revision was 85.4 points (range, 46 to 100 points) at the time of the latest follow-up. Four patients (3%) complained of thigh pain that was not associated with another disorder. According to the criteria of Engh et al., all femoral implants were graded as stable bone-ingrown. The probability of survival of both the femoral and the acetabular component at ten years, with any revision as the end point, was 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 0.97). The probability of survival of the cup was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.97), and that of the stem was 0.99 (95% confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.00).The results of arthroplasty with a tapered, rectangular titanium stem combined with a conical threaded cup inserted without cement were excellent at a minimum of ten years. Our data suggest that femoral stem fixation continues to be secure, while the threaded cup is prone to aseptic loosening.