Background: Revision hip arthroplasty is commonly associated with substantial blood loss and the subsequent need for transfusion. This leads to an increased risk of blood-borne infection and hemolytic reactions. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether the use of intraoperative red blood-cell salvage in revision hip arthroplasty reduces the overall rate of allogeneic transfusion.
Methods: Forty-seven patients who had undergone revision hip arthroplasty with the use of intraoperative cell salvage were identified. A computer database was used to individually match these patients, for age, sex, and eleven operative variables, to control patients who had undergone revision hip arthroplasty in the same unit without intraoperative cell salvage. Data gathered included the total allogeneic transfusion requirement for each patient, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin levels, and operative time.
Results: The total allogeneic transfusion requirement was significantly lower in the group that had intraoperative cell salvage than in the control group (median, 2 compared with 6 U of packed red blood cells, p = 0.0006), with a median reduction in allogeneic transfusion of 4 U. There was no significant difference in preoperative or postoperative hemoglobin levels between the groups.
Conclusions: The use of intraoperative cell salvage significantly lowered the allogeneic transfusion requirement, which can lead to substantial cost savings. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the use of intraoperative red blood-cell salvage in revision hip arthroplasty was evaluated by matching patients on the basis of age, sex, and operative variables.
Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.