The Current State of Cervical and Lumbar Spinal Disc Arthroplasty
The growth of spinal implant and orthobiologic technologies over the last several years has been increasing in tempo1 (Fig. 1) and is fast approaching the size of total hip and knee arthroplasty in annual dollar sales in the United States. During this time, a number of start-up and established medical device manufacturers have focused increasing resources on solutions for spinal problems. The role of the orthopaedic and neurosurgeon in these enterprises as inventor, owner, and user has contributed to this march of progress. This paper describes a small (<1%) but increasingly visible aspect of these advancing technologies, that is, artificial disc replacement.