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Satisfactory results of implantation of the talar body prosthesis were reported in 1997, although some complications associated with the initial design were noted. The present study evaluated outcomes of treatment with a modified talar body prosthesis.Of the thirty-six talar body prostheses implanted with use of a transmalleolar surgical approach from 1974 to 2011, thirty-three were available for follow-up at ten to thirty-six years or had failed prior to that time. The indication for implantation had been osteonecrosis in twenty-three patients, a comminuted talar fracture in eight, and a talar body tumor in two.Twenty-eight of the thirty-three prostheses were still in place at the time of final follow-up and five had failed prior to five years. The duration of follow-up was ten to twenty years in eight patients, twenty to thirty years in eleven, and thirty to thirty-six years in nine. The AOFAS (American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society) ankle-hindfoot score did not differ significantly among these three groups. Patients over sixty-five years of age with underlying disease that impeded walking ability had lower AOFAS scores. Early prosthesis failure occurred as a result of size mismatch in two patients, tumor recurrence in one, infection in one, and osteonecrosis of the talar head and neck in one. These failures, which occurred at eight to fifty-seven months, were treated with tibiotalar arthrodesis in three patients, prosthesis revision in one, and below-the-knee amputation in one.Although early prosthesis failure may occur, survival of the talar body prosthesis can provide satisfactory ankle and foot function.Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.