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A multicenter clinical study assessed the ability of an acellular allograft dermal matrix to function as a permanent dermal transplant in full-thickness and deep partial-thickness burns. The study consisted of a pilot phase (24 patients) to identify the optimum protocol and a study phase (43 patients) to evaluate graft performance. Each patient had both a test and a mirror-image or contiguous control site. At the test site, the dermal matrix was grafted to the excised wound base and a split-thickness autograft was simultaneously applied over it. The control site was grafted with a split-thickness autograft alone. Fourteen-day take rates of the dermal matrix were statistically equivalent to the control autografts. Histology of the dermal matrix showed fibroblast infiltration, neovascularization, and neoepithelialization without evidence of rejection. Wound assessment over time showed that thin split-thickness autografts plus allograft dermal matrix were equivalent to thicker split-thickness autografts.