Long-term video-EEG and, more recently, video-polysomnography, have provided the means to confirm and expand on the interconnections between sleep and epilepsy. Some of these relationships have become firmly established. When one of the authors (N.F.S.) presented part of this paper at a symposium on the Future of Sleep in Neurology at an American Clinical Neurophysiology Society annual meeting in 2004, the purpose was to summarize what we know, don’t know, and need to know about the effects of sleep on epilepsy and epilepsy on sleep. Here we seek to summarize some of the more firmly established relationships between sleep and epilepsy and identify intriguing associations that require further elucidation.