This paper provides an overview of the relationship between cultural beliefs, values, practices, behavior, and psychosocial development. A framework for analyzing this relationship is presented, illustrated with studies from the cross-cultural literature. We then present a review of the literature concerning the cultural influences on one specific behavioral issue, temperament. We conclude with a critical discussion of the unique methodological issues encountered in the study of child behavior and psychosocial development in a cross-cultural and/or culturally diverse perspective. J Dev Behav Pediatr 17:191–198, 1996. Index terms: culture, ethnic groups, child development, psychosocial behavior.