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Within the past two decades, an "affect revolution" [Fischer and Tangney, Self-conscious Emotions: The Psychology of Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment, and Pride 1995:3-22] in research has revolutionized the ways in which emotion processes have been conceptualized and subsequently studied. This review discusses the literature on emotion regulation (ER) in childhood and adolescence by first summarizing the trajectory of emotional development from infancy through adolescence, followed by a discussion of the biological and environmental influences on ER, and then a review of the literature linking ER to psychosocial functioning. The penultimate section offers practical suggestions for identifying ER difficulties in children and strategies for intervention efforts. Potential areas for future research conclude the review.