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Nonadherence to treatment is an important influence on the health outcomes of children and adolescents with pediatric asthma, which is the most prevalent childhood chronic illness. Because the factors that influence treatment adherence for pediatric asthma are not well understood, a comprehensive review of relevant research is needed. To address this need, research concerning the correlates and predictors of adherence to inhaled corticosteroid treatment for pediatric asthma was reviewed. Significant predictors and correlates of treatment adherence identified in this review were consistent with a conceptual model that included family demographic characteristics and functioning, parent and child characteristics, health care system and provider characteristics, and child health outcomes. Family functioning and parental beliefs about asthma and medication treatment demonstrated consistent relationships with treatment adherence. Future research should test multivariate models of influences on treatment adherence in pediatric asthma in prospective studies using reliable and valid measures of predictors and outcomes. Intervention studies are also needed that target potentially modifiable, empirically supported influences to enhance treatment adherence. The clinical management of pediatric asthma would be enhanced by routine assessment of barriers to treatment adherence and anticipatory interventions that address them to prevent nonadherence.