logo

Predictors of Nonhospitalization and Functional Response in Clozapine Treatment: A Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid

Abstract

Background

Clozapine remains the only evidence-based treatment for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, and prediction of clozapine response is important in developing stratified treatment. We studied potential predictors of clozapine response, applying functional assessments as well as service use.

Procedures

We performed a nationwide cohort study among all individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia in Denmark after 1995 (age, ≥18 years) who initiated clozapine treatment between 2004 and 2011 with a Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF-F) score registered at clozapine initiation. During up to 2-year follow-up, clinical response was defined as (a) no further hospitalization with schizophrenia or (b) improvement in GAF-F score (moderate improvement: increase, ≥10; substantial improvement: increase, ≥20; and GAF-F, ≥50). We performed Cox regression analysis and report adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRRs; 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]).

Results

Among 502 clozapine users with a registered GAF-F score, 232 (46.2%) remained out of hospital, 96 (19.1%) achieved moderate functional improvement, and 29 (5.8%) substantial functional improvement. Of all potential predictors, voluntary status at clozapine initiation showed borderline statistical significance with nonhospitalization (HRR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.97–2.67). Regarding functional improvement, living with a partner was the strongest predictor with an almost threefold increased HRR (2.78; 95% CI, 1.07–7.23). Female sex was only nonsignificantly associated with functional improvement, whereas the chance of substantial improvement decreased by 15% (HRR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72–1.00) for each year delay in clozapine initiation among females.

Conclusions

Living with a partner was the strongest predictor of functioning after clozapine initiation in this study. Although potentially indicating better premorbid functioning, this finding stresses the need and importance of social support during the course of the treatment independent of clinical factors.

    loading  Loading Related Articles

Join Ovid Insights!

Benefits of Ovid Insights Include:

  • Consolidated email digests of the latest research in your favorite topics
  • A personalized dashboard of your topics all on one page 
  • Tools to bookmark and share articles of interest
  • Ability to customize and save your own searches

Register with Ovid Insights »