Association Between Urinary Tract Infections and Antipsychotic Drug Use in Older Adults

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Abstract

Background

Antipsychotic drugs are frequently prescribed to older adults, but they may be associated with serious adverse effects. The objective was to investigate the association between use of antipsychotics in older adults and the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Methods

Design

This study was designed as a cohort study.

Setting

Data were obtained from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink from January 1, 2000, to September 29, 2016.

Participants

Primary care patients 65 years or older in the United Kingdom with a first prescription for an oral antipsychotic were included in the study.

Measurements

Incidence of UTIs was calculated for periods with and without exposure to antipsychotic drugs in one cohort. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis with Andersen-Gill extension for recurrent events was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results

During the study period, 191,827 individuals with a first prescription for an oral antipsychotic drug were identified. Current use of antipsychotics was associated with an increased risk of UTI compared with past use (adjusted HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.28–1.34). This effect was strongest in the first 14 days of use (adjusted HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.73–1.95) and in individuals who used more than one antipsychotic drug concomitantly (adjusted HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.45–1.87). The risk was slightly higher for typical antipsychotics than for atypical antipsychotics. Stratification by sex showed that risk estimates were slightly higher in men than in women.

Conclusions

Use of antipsychotics was associated with an increased risk of UTIs in both men and women, particularly in the first weeks after the start of treatment.

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