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To retrospectively determine whether fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD) value at 3-T diffusion-tensor imaging is different between low- and high-grade gliomas and may be useful for glioma grading.Review board approval was obtained, and informed consent was waived. Diffusion-tensor imaging was performed in 27 patients with surgically proved gliomas (19 high-grade and 8 low-grade gliomas). Fractional anisotropy and MD values were measured in 3 regions; peritumoral edema, and enhancing and nonenhancing tumor regions. We compared mean FA and MD values of nonenhancing tumor regions between low- and high-grade gliomas and compared the FA and MD values among the 3 mentioned regions in high-grade gliomas. The relationship between FA and MD values of tumors was also investigated. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test and Pearson correlation coefficients.In the nonenhancing regions of tumors, FA ratios were not significantly different between low- and high-grade gliomas (0.472 and 0.701, P = 0.075), but MD ratios were significantly lower in high-grade gliomas (1.899 and 1.23, P < 0.001). In high-grade gliomas, enhancing tumors showed a tendency toward a lower FA ratio than nonenhancing tumors (P = 0.034), but FA values or ratios of peritumoral edema were not significantly different from those of enhancing or nonenhancing tumor. No strong relationship was found between FA and MD values.Fractional anisotropy values of low- and high-grade gliomas were not significantly different. However, MD values of nonenhancing low-grade gliomas were significantly higher than those of nonenhancing high-grade gliomas, which will be useful for the grading of nonenhancing infiltrative gliomas.