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Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of digestive tract disorders, such as chronic active gastritis, peptic ulceration, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is dependent on many factors, including bacterial genotype, host physiology and genetics, and environmental factors such as diet. Researchers continue to explore the complexities of H. pylori infection, seeking to explain why some individuals have asymptomatic infection, whereas others experience clinical disease. The importance of treating H. pylori infection in patients with gastrointestinal problems has been confirmed in recent years, with clinical trials showing that cure of infection can prevent duodenal ulcer and, to a lesser extent, gastric ulcer recurrence; cure early stage mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma; and reduce the chances of developing gastric cancer in high-risk individuals.