High Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Mexican Mestizo Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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Abstract

Background and Aims

Recent studies have shown that celiac disease (CD) could affect 0.5% to 3% of the general population, including Mexican Mestizos, which represents a complex mixture of genetics, and constitutes the core of Mexican and Latin American populations. However, the association between CD and other conditions, specifically type-1 diabetes mellitus, in this population remains unknown. Thus, our aim was to determine the prevalence of both serologic and biopsy proven CD in Mexican Mestizo adults with type-1 diabetes.

Methods

Over a 6-month period, serum samples obtained from consecutive Mexican Mestizo adult patients (age ≥18 y) with type-1 diabetes were tested with a new generation human recombinant protein based IgA tissue transglutaminase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay commercial kit. All patients with positive serologic test results underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and small intestinal biopsies to confirm CD.

Results

Eighty-four type-1 diabetic patients were included (62 women, mean age 28.9±9 y). Overall, 9 patients (9/84) were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase with a point prevalence of 10.7% (95% CI, 4%-17%). Seven patients agreed to undergo endoscopy. Five subjects had biopsy-proven CD (5.9%, 95% CI, 1.9%-13.3%). One patient had chronic diarrhea and other abdominal bloating; whereas the remaining 3 were asymptomatic. CD associated type-1 diabetic patients tended to have higher hemoglobin A1c levels (P=0.07), reflecting poor glycemic control.

Conclusions

As in other populations, we demonstrated a high prevalence of biopsy-proven CD (5.9%) among Mexican Mestizo patients with type-1 diabetes. Clinicians should be aware of this common association in this ethnic group.

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