Perianal Disease Combined With NOD2 Genotype Predicts Need for IBD-related Surgery in Crohn’s Disease Patients From a Population-based Cohort

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Background:Patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) often require surgery at some stage of disease course. Prediction of CD outcome is influenced by clinical, environmental, serological, and genetic factors (eg, NOD2). Being able to identify CD patients at high risk of surgical intervention should assist clinicians to decide whether or not to prescribe early aggressive treatment with immunomodulators.Methods:We performed a retrospective analysis of selected clinical (age at diagnosis, perianal disease, active smoking) and genetic (NOD2 genotype) data obtained for a population-based CD cohort from the Canterbury Inflammatory Bowel Disease study. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of complicated outcome in these CD patients (ie, need for inflammatory bowel disease-related surgery).Results:Perianal disease and the NOD2 genotype were the only independent factors associated with the need for surgery in this patient group (odds ratio=2.84 and 1.60, respectively). By combining the associated NOD2 genotype with perianal disease we generated a single “clinicogenetic” variable. This was strongly associated with increased risk of surgery (odds ratio=3.84, P=0.00, confidence interval, 2.28-6.46) and offered moderate predictive accuracy (positive predictive value=0.62). Approximately 1/3 of surgical outcomes in this population are attributable to the NOD2+PA variable (attributable risk=0.32).Conclusions:Knowledge of perianal disease and NOD2 genotype in patients presenting with CD may offer clinicians some decision-making utility for early diagnosis of complicated CD progression and initiating intensive treatment to avoid surgical intervention. Future studies should investigate combination effects of other genetic, clinical, and environmental factors when attempting to identify predictors of complicated CD outcomes.

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