Recently new insights on gut microbiota have revolutionized many concepts of the modern medicine. The alteration of microbiota, which is called dysbiosis, has been associated with an expanding list of diseases and conditions. The development of next-generation sequencing techniques allowed comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota composition without the limitations of classic culture methods. Furthermore, introduction of functional techniques such as metabolomics and proteomics allowed for integrated analysis thus obtaining more robust insights on microbiota functions in health and disease. These tools allow to address the role of factors able to modify the gut microbiota, the so called “microbiota influencers.” These data are useful to explain the physiopathology of several disease and thus to identify new potential therapeutic targets. Among microbiota influencers, many studies focused on the impact of antibiotic administration on the gut microbiota, because of their widespread use. Notably, beside the known beneficial effect of antibiotic in treating infectious diseases, these drugs have shown detrimental effects on gut microbiota which, in turn, might have long-term consequences on the host. Finally, therapeutic modulation of gut microbiota, by means of selected antibiotics with eubiotic effects, probiotics and with fecal microbiota transplantation seems of great interest as it might be able to prevent or even revert antibiotic-induced dysbiosis.