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To investigate the pancreatic hormone responses to mixed meal test, in particular changes in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and their interrelationship, in individuals with new-onset prediabetes or diabetes after non-necrotizing acute pancreatitis (NODAP) compared with healthy controls.Twenty-nine individuals with NODAP and 29 age-and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. All participants (after fasting for at least 8 h) were given 12 oz. of BOOST drink and blood samples were collected before and after stimulation to measure insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide. Indices of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS, 1/fasting insulin, Raynaud, and Matsuda) and insulin secretion (HOMA-β, Stumvoll, insulinogenic index 30’ and 60’) were calculated. Repeated measures analyses were conducted in the unadjusted and adjusted models.Insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly higher in individuals with NODAP compared with controls during mixed meal test in both the unadjusted (P=0.001 for both) and adjusted (P=0.004 and P=0.006, respectively) models. HOMA-IS (P=0.005), 1/fasting insulin (P=0.018), Raynaud index (P=0.018), and Matsuda index (P=0.021) were significantly lower in individuals with NODAP, whereas HOMA-β (P=0.028) and Stumvoll index (P=0.013) were significantly higher. Glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide levels did not differ significantly between NODAP and controls during mixed meal test in both the unadjusted (P=0.345 and P=0.206, respectively) and adjusted (P=0.359 and P=0.158, respectively) models.Decreased insulin sensitivity, β-cell compensation, and no significant change in postprandial levels of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide characterize NODAP. The above findings may help develop an evidence-based protocol with a view to optimize control of glucose homeostasis in NODAP.