The objective of the study was to investigate the change of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, lipid profile, leptin, ghrelin, orexin, visfatin, agouti-related protein, and cholecystokinin levels during 6 weeks of olanzapine treatment in newly diagnosed first-episode drug naive, young adult, nonobese male patients with psychosis. Twenty male participants who were all first-episode drug naive psychotic patients without prominent affective signs and symptoms and 22 healthy male controls of similar age were included. BMI, waist circumference, fasting glucose, and lipid profiles were measured, and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores were obtained at baseline, during the second and sixth week of treatment, and the aforementioned neuropeptide levels were measured at baseline and during the sixth week of treatment. Treatment was associated with significant increases in BMI, waist circumference, serum triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein levels. BMI levels increased more than 7% in over 75% of the patients. Leptin increased, and ghrelin and orexin decreased significantly with olanzapine treatment, whereas cholecystokinin, visfatin, and agouti-related protein levels did not change significantly. In conclusion, consistent with previous studies, we found increased BMI, leptin and lipids during olanzapine treatment. Association of neuropeptide level changes with symptom improvement might be mediated by the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems.