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Augmentation index is a parameter measured by pulse wave analysis (PWA) and is used as a surrogate measure of arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to assess whether augmentation index is associated with cardiovascular risk, as well as to evaluate whether the determinants of augmentation index are different in patients with cardiovascular disease compared to healthy subjects.We related augmentation index to risk scores in 216 subjects with or without a cardiovascular disease. Subjects without cardiovascular disease were classified according to the ‘coronary risk chart’ of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), and those with cardiovascular disease were classified using the SMART (Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease) score and the EPOZ (Epidemiological Prevention study Of Zoetermeer) function. Augmentation index was derived by PWA using carotid applanation tonometry. Augmentation index was also correlated to age, blood pressure, heart rate, smoking history, cholesterol, height, body mass index and gender in subjects categorized as healthy or with cardiovascular disease.Augmentation index significantly increased with increasing risk scores (P< 0.0001) and was significantly correlated to cardiovascular risk (ESC: P< 0.0001; SMART: P< 0.0001; EPOZ: P< 0.0001). In subjects with and without cardiovascular disease, augmentation index was correlated with diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, height and gender. Age was found to be significantly correlated with augmentation index only in healthy subjects but not in those with atherosclerotic disease.Our findings suggest that augmentation index may be a useful marker of cardiovascular risk. Further studies are required to investigate the relationship between age and augmentation index in subjects with atherosclerotic disease.