Alcohol intake and hypertension subtypes in Chinese men


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Abstract

ObjectiveTo examine the associations between alcohol intake and isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), systolic–diastolic hypertension (SDH), and isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH).DesignCross-sectional study of Chinese adults.MethodsWe analyzed data from 5317 Chinese males who were not on antihypertensive medications from a nationally representative sample of Chinese adults aged 35–74 years. ISH was defined as a mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg and a mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg, SDH as a SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, and IDH as SBP < 140 mmHg and DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Alcohol intake was determined using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and participants were categorized either as non-drinkers (<12 drinks in the prior year) or by tertile of alcohol intake.ResultsThe odds ratios of all three hypertension subtypes were higher at higher levels of alcohol intake, with those in the highest alcohol intake category (≥30 drinks/week) 2.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 3.0), 2.2 (1.6, 3.1), and 2.1 (1.4, 3.1) times more likely to have ISH, SDH, or IDH, respectively, than non-drinkers. The population attributable risk percentage due to heavy drinking (≥30 drinks/week) was 13.9% for ISH, 13.4% for SDH, and 12.0% for IDH. Liquor drinking, specifically, was associated with a higher odds ratio of ISH, while SDH and IDH associations did not differ by type of alcoholic beverage.ConclusionsIn Chinese males, higher intake of alcohol is associated with higher risk of ISH, SDH, and IDH. Efforts to reduce hypertension in China should include a strong focus on decreasing heavy alcohol consumption.

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