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To evaluate the current status of blood pressure (BP) control as measured at home and in the office, as well as to clarify and compare the prevalence and characteristics of isolated uncontrolled hypertension as measured at home (home hypertension) and in the office (office hypertension).A cross-sectional study.Primary care offices in Japan.A sample of 3400 patients with essential hypertension (mean age, 66 years; males, 45%) receiving antihypertensive treatment.Overall, the mean home systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) was 140/82 mmHg, and the mean office SBP/DBP was 143/81 mmHg. Of the 3400 subjects, 19% had controlled hypertension (home SBP/DBP < 135/85 mmHg and office SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg), 23% had isolated uncontrolled home hypertension (home SBP/DBP ≥ 135/85 mmHg and office SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg), 15% had isolated uncontrolled office hypertension (home SBP/DBP < 135/85 mmHg and office SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg), and 43% had uncontrolled hypertension (home SBP/DBP ≥ 135/85 mmHg and office SBP/DBP ≥ 140/90 mmHg). Compared to controlled hypertension, factors associated with isolated uncontrolled home hypertension included obesity, relatively higher office SBP, habitual drinking, and the use of two or more prescribed antihypertensive drugs. Compared to uncontrolled hypertension, factors associated with isolated uncontrolled office hypertension included female gender, lower body mass index, and relatively lower office SBP.The use of all four, three of four, or all three predictive factors might be useful for the clinician to suspect isolated uncontrolled home or office hypertension.