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End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a high-risk condition and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is the strongest risk factor in this population.Since the prognostic value of left atrial (LA) size in ESRD is still unknown, we performed a prospective cohort study aimed at testing the prognostic value of LA volume in a cohort of 249 ESRD patients.Both un-indexed and indexed LA volume (LAV) was significantly higher in dialysis patients than in healthy subjects (P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis only left ventricular mass index (LVMI), LV ejection fraction (LVEF), ratio of early (E) to late atrial (A) mitral Doppler peak flow velocity (E/A ratio) and antihypertensive treatment maintained an independent association with LAV. During the follow-up 113 patients died. LAV added significant prognostic power to a multivariate Cox model of all-cause death and the model based on height2.7 provided the best data fit. Notably, this index maintained an independent predictive value for death (P = 0.03) also when LVMI and LVEF were jointly forced into the Cox's model. Neither crude nor body surface area (BSA)-adjusted LAV had an independent association with death when tested in the Cox model including LVMI and LVEF.In patients with ESRD, LAV indexed for height2.7 displays prognostic value beyond and above that provided by LV mass and function.