Antioxidant activity of carvedilol in cardiovascular disease

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Oxidative and inflammatory stresses are cardinal in the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress also leads to the induction of inflammation through the activation of proinflammatory transcription factors. Understanding the mechanisms leading to oxidative stress and the means of suppressing it are important in controlling complications related to atherogenesis, since oxidative and inflammatory stress are important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The failure of chemical antioxidants [which scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS)], such as vitamins E and C, has led to further exploration of the ROS-suppressive effects of drugs used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Carvedilol has been shown to possess both ROS-scavenging and ROS-suppressive effects, and its use is associated with a reduction in oxidative stress. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects of carvedilol have now been described. Although further clinical investigations are required, these properties may contribute to the improvement in clinical outcomes observed with carvedilol.

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