Nationwide survey of prevalence and risk factors of prehypertension and hypertension in Iranian adults

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Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of prehypertension (Pre-HTN) and hypertension (HTN) among the adult population of Iran.

Methods

A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2004 to February 2005. The selection was conducted by stratified probability cluster sampling through household family members in Iran. Blood pressure (BP) and associated risk factors of 35 048 men and 34 674 women aged 25–65 years (mean 44.1 years) were measured.

Results

The prevalence of Pre-HTN was 59.6% in men and 44.5% in women; and 19.8% of men and 26.9% of women were hypertensive, according to Joint National Committee 7 criteria. Pre-HTN was more common among men whereas HTN was more common among women. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and high cholesterol were strongly associated with Pre-HTN in both genders. In women, low educational attainment, residence in an urban area and high blood glucose were also associated with Pre-HTN. Age, low educational attainment, overweight, obesity, abdominal obesity and high cholesterol and blood glucose were strongly associated with HTN in both genders.

Conclusion

Pre-HTN and HTN appear to be quiet common in Iran and were associated with obesity. More men than women present with Pre-HTN, whereas more women than men present with HTN. Prevention and treatment strategies are urgently needed to address the health burden of Pre-HTN and HTN and to prevent prehypertensive people from developing HTN and cardiovascular disease.

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