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Hypertension in children and adolescents has gained ground in cardiovascular medicine, thanks to the progress made in several areas of pathophysiological and clinical research. These guidelines represent a consensus among specialists involved in the detection and control of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. The guidelines synthesize a considerable amount of scientific data and clinical experience and represent best clinical wisdom upon which physicians, nurses and families should base their decisions. They call attention to the burden of hypertension in children and adolescents, and its contribution to the current epidemic of cardiovascular disease, these guidelines should encourage public policy makers, to develop a global effort to improve identification and treatment of high blood pressure among children and adolescents.