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We examined the association between plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble E-selectin, angiotensin II, renin activity and the risk of hypertension among 2589 study participants aged 20 years and older from Inner Mongolia, China.Three blood pressure measurements were obtained using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer and hypertension was defined as blood pressure of at least 140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications. Overnight fasting blood samples were obtained to measure the biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation.The average levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (7.5 vs. 5.4 mg/l), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (339.4 vs. 322.6 ng/ml), soluble E-selectin (19.1 vs. 18.2 ng/ml), and angiotensin II (52.0 vs. 47.0 pg/ml) were significantly higher, whereas renin activity (1.3 vs. 1.5 mg/ml.h) was lower in hypertensive compared to normotensive participants (all P value <0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of hypertension for the highest quartile were 1.41 (1.06, 1.86) for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 1.93 (1.48, 2.53) for angiotensin II, and 0.70 (0.54, 0.91) for renin activity.Our study indicated that elevated plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and angiotensin II were positively and renin activity inversely associated with the risk of hypertension. These data suggest that inflammation and endothelial dysfunction may play a role in the cause of hypertension.