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Past research has indicated that child abuse is related to mental and physical health conditions and that mental and physical health conditions are related to decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, little is known about the independent relationship between child abuse and HRQOL. For the current analysis, data were from the nationally representative Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study. Multiple linear regression analyses tested the relationships between child abuse and current HRQOL (SF-36) after adjusting for the effects of sociodemographic variables and numerous psychiatric disorders and physical health conditions. Neglect, psychological abuse, physical abuse, severe sexual abuse, and number of types of child abuse experienced were associated with reduced mental HRQOL. Psychological abuse, physical abuse, and number of types of child abuse experienced were associated with reduced physical HRQOL. Child abuse is an important determinant of HRQOL. The ability to successfully reduce the occurrence of child abuse or provide early intervention after child abuse occurs may help to improve HRQOL in the general population.