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The aim of this study was to assess Chinese schizophrenia patients’ quality of life (QOL) and identify its demographic and clinical correlates. A random sample of 540 community-dwelling schizophrenia patients was interviewed using standardized assessment instruments. The patients’ basic sociodemographic and clinical data and QOL were collected. Compared with the general population, patients had significantly lower scores in the physical and psychological QOL domains. Multivariate analyses showed that better social support independently predicted higher QOL in all domains, whereas more severe positive symptoms predicted worse psychological and environmental domains. Overall psychopathology predicted both worse physical and psychological domains; depressive symptoms and being married predicted worse physical and social QOL, respectively. Our results suggest that therapeutic and psychosocial interventions alleviating positive and depressive symptoms and improving poor social support and marriage-related problems in Chinese patients with schizophrenia might be of considerable benefit in improving their QOL.