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Reflection exposes performance gaps and is a step in the process of behavior change among adult learners. However, little is known about the relationships between reflection and behavior change in CME. Our objectives were to measure associations between validated reflection scores and behavior change among CME participants and to identify associations between reflection and characteristics of CME presentations.This was a cohort study of attendees at a national hospital medicine CME course. Participants provided reflection scores for each presentation and planned commitment-to-change (CTC) statements at the conclusion of the course. Reflection scores from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) were averaged for each presentation. CTC statements were linked to their accompanying presentations. A 3-month postcourse survey was conducted to assess if planned CTCs were successfully implemented.In all, 223 of 281 participants (79.4%) returned evaluations. Of the 195 planned CTC statements available for postcourse analysis, 128 (65.6%) were implemented. Reflection scores correlated with the number of planned CTC statements across all presentations (Pearson correlation, 0.65; P < .001). In addition, higher reflection scores (mean [SD]) were associated with the presence of audience response opportunities (Yes: 4.13 [0.18] versus No: 3.96 [0.16]; P = .01) and the use of clinical cases (Yes: 4.09 [0.18] versus No: 3.86 [0.12]; P < .01).To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a relationship between participant reflection and CTC in conference-based CME. Presentations that incorporate clinical cases and audience response systems seem to stimulate participant reflection and behavior change.