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T-cell mediated immune response to dietary gluten and cytokines release are important for the enteropathy seen in celiac disease. We investigated the serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in celiac children before and after gluten exclusion.Cytokine levels were determined using enzyme immunoassay in serum from 12 untreated celiac patients, 16 treated celiac patients on a gluten-free diet for at least two years, and from 26 control children. Eight of 12 untreated patients were also investigated at 6 and 12 months after gluten exclusion. Serum IgA antiendomysium antibodies were also assayed by indirect immunofluorescence.Soluble interleukin-2 receptor and interleukin-6 levels were significantly increased in untreated celiac patients compared with treated and control children. There was no difference in the tumor necrosis factor-α levels between the groups. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels were the only ones significantly decreased at 12 months after gluten exclusion. However, soluble interleukin-2 receptor and interleukin-6 levels at 12 months were significantly higher compared with controls. Antiendomysium antibodies had a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% and the titers decreased significantly after 12 months of gluten exclusion. A significant positive correlation was found between antiendomysium antibody titers with both soluble interleukin-2 receptor and interleukin-6 values.The serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor and interleukin-6 levels may be used as a noninvasive measure of celiac disease activity and response to treatment.