Combined Use of Noninvasive Tests is Useful in the Initial Diagnostic Approach to a Child with Suspected Inflammatory Bowel Disease


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Abstract

Objective:To assess the effectiveness of the combined use of fecal calprotectin (FC), anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA), perinuclear staining antineutrophil antibody (pANCA), small intestinal permeability test (IP), and bowel wall ultrasonography measurement (BWUS) in the diagnostic work-up of children with suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Methods:All children referred for initial assessment of possible IBD were eligible. Patients with symptoms or signs (right-lower quadrant mass, perianal disease, or hematochezia) mandating a complete work-up for IBD were excluded. All enrolled patients underwent a clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and endoscopic evaluation including biopsy examinations. The immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA ASCA, IgG pANCA, FC, IP, and BWUS were tested in all patients at the initial assessment.Results:A final diagnosis of IBD was made in 27 patients: 17 Crohn disease and 10 ulcerative colitis. Eighteen children had other gastrointestinal diagnoses (8 functional bowel disorders, 5 food allergy-mediated diseases, 4 infectious enterocolitis, 1 familial Mediterranean fever). In patients with simultaneous abnormal values of FC, BWUS, and ASCA/pANCA, the estimated probability of having IBD was 99.47%. Patients with negative results on all tests had a 0.69% of probability of IBD.Conclusions:The incorporation of noninvasive diagnostic tests into the initial diagnostic approach may avoid unnecessary invasive procedures and facilitate clinical decision-making when the diagnosis of IBD in children is initially uncertain.

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