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The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of gallbladder stone disease (GD) in a collective of obese children and adolescents and to assess the role of potential influencing factors such as the degree of obesity, sex, age, and pubertal development.Four hundred ninety-three obese children and adolescents (body mass index standard deviation score [BMI-SDS] > 2.0p) aged 8 to 19 years (218 males, 275 females) were included in the study and underwent ultrasound for detection of GD.Gallbladder stones were detected in 10 of 493 (2.0%; 8 girls, 2 boys) subjects studied. None of the 95 prepubertal children examined were found to suffer from GD. Patients with GD were more severely obese (BMI-SDS 3.4 ± 0.5 vs. 2.7 ± 0.4; P < 0.001) and older (16.1 ± 1.5 vs.13.9 ± 2.0 years; P < 0.008) than children and adolescents without GD.Compared with published data for unselected children an adolescents, the prevalence of GD (2.0%) in obese children and adolescents, previously treated with diet for obesity, is high. Obesity and female sex appear even in children and adolescents to be risk factors for the development of GD. The occurrence of prepubertal GD is rare.