Increased Mucosal Expression of Toll-like Receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 in Coeliac Disease


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Abstract

Objectives:The dysregulation of adaptive immunity is extensively investigated in celiac disease (CD). Recent data also suggest, however, the implication of innate immunity in CD. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in the initiation or maintenance of innate immune responses. The aim of this study was to characterise the expression of TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 in duodenal biopsy samples taken from children with CD and from controls.Patients and Methods:Duodenal biopsy specimens were collected from 16 children with untreated CD, 9 children with treated CD, and 10 controls. The mRNA expression of TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Protein levels of TLRs were determined by Western blot.Results:We found higher TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression and protein levels in the duodenal mucosa of children with treated CD and untreated CD compared with controls. TLR2 and TLR4 mRNA expression and protein levels were even higher in the duodenal mucosa of children with treated CD than in untreated CD. TLR3 mRNA expression was increased in the duodenal mucosa of children with treated CD compared with untreated CD and controls. We were able to detect TLR3 protein only in the biopsy specimens of treated patients with CD.Conclusions:The alteration of TLR2 and TLR4 expression in the duodenal mucosa of patients with CD supports the potential implication of innate immune system in the pathomechanism of this disease.

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