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Pruritus ani is frequently encountered in children by the primary care physician and the pediatrician. It is mainly due to an infection with pinworms, but fecal soiling, poor hygiene, local irritation, and dietary agents should also be considered. Treatment should be directed at the underlying etiology. Once these have been excluded, both general and specific measures must be initiated. There is almost no experience for local treatment modalities in children, and they cannot currently be recommended.