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Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare autosomal recessive enteropathy characterized by intractable diarrhea and malabsorption. Recently, various MYO5B gene mutations have been identified in patients with MVID. Interestingly, several patients with MVID showed only a MYO5B mutation in 1 allele (heterozygous) or no mutations in the MYO5B gene, illustrating the need to further functionally characterize the cell biological effects of the MYO5B mutations.The genomic DNA of 9 patients diagnosed as having MVID was screened for MYO5B mutations, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry on the material of 2 patients was performed to investigate resultant cellular consequences.We demonstrate for the first time that MYO5B mutations can be correlated with altered myosin Vb messenger RNA expression and with an aberrant subcellular distribution of the myosin Vb protein. Moreover, we demonstrate that the typical and myosin Vb–controlled accumulation of Rab11a- and FIP5-positive recycling endosomes in the apical cytoplasm of the cells is abolished in MVID enterocytes, which is indicative of altered myosin Vb function. Moreover, we report 8 novel MYO5B mutations in 9 patients of various ethnic backgrounds with MVID, including compound heterozygous mutations.Our functional analysis indicates that MYO5B mutations can be correlated with an aberrant subcellular distribution of the myosin Vb protein, and apical recycling endosomes, which, together with the additional compound heterozygous mutations, significantly strengthen the link between MYO5B and MVID.