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The purpose of these studies was to compare the effects of CGS 30440 (CGS), a dual angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/neutral endopeptidase inhibitor (NEPI) to benazepril (BZ), an ACEI, in a model of five-sixths nephrectomy. The doses of BZ and CGS 30440 tested were 6.5 μmol/kg/day and 2.2 μmol/kg/day. Drugs or vehicle (V) were administered subcutaneously for 6 weeks with dosing initiated 1 week after renal mass reduction. At 6 weeks of receiving drug (7 weeks after five-sixths nephrectomy), CGS/6.5 and BZ/6.5 and CGS/2.2 maintained systolic blood pressures (SBP) at presurgical values. BZ/2.2 did not reduce SBP and was similar to the V group. Urinary protein excretion increased >10-fold in the V-treated group. BZ, at either dose, reduced the proteinuria slightly. CGS/6.5 and CGS/2.2 caused significant (p < 0.05) reductions in proteinuria. Creatinine clearance (Crcl), was reduced by 82% in V, 65 and 61% in the CGS/6.5 and CGS/2.2 groups, and by 69 and 74% in the BZ/6.5 and BZ/2.2 groups, respectively. Both CGS treatments improved the fractional excretion of Na+ (%FENa) significantly from the BZ and V groups. The %FENa for BZ at either dose did not differ from that of V. Elevated urinary cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), an indicator suggesting increased intrarenal levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), was observed only in the CGS groups. Histologic examination indicated that BZ/6.5 reduced glomerular sclerosis and the extent of tubular dilation, whereas BZ/2.2 had little effect. CGS, especially at the high dose, virtually normalized the glomerular and tubular pathology. Compared with BZ, CGS 30440 treatment further diminished tubular dilation and proteinaceous cast formation. These tubular effects are consistent with some of the renal actions of ANP. The results from these studies indicate that CGS 30440, a combined ACEI/NEPI, conferred a greater renal protective effect than did ACE inhibition alone.