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The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 30-day treatment with atorvastatin and fenofibrate on monocyte release and plasma levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We studied 52 atherosclerotic patients with primary mixed dyslipidemia and 16 age-, sex-, and weight-matched control subjects with asymptomatic atherosclerosis. Dyslipidemic patients enrolled into the study were randomly divided into three groups, simultaneously treated with atorvastatin (20 mg/d, n = 18), fenofibrate (267 mg/d, n = 16), or placebo (n = 18). Plasma lipid-profile and content of MCP-1, and monocyte release of this chemokine were measured at baseline and after 30 days of therapy. Compared with the control subjects, dyslipidemic patients exhibited the increased plasma levels and monocyte MCP-1 release. Atorvastatin and fenofibrate not only improved lipid profile but also decreased monocyte secretion of this chemokine. Moreover, hypolipemic agents slightly reduced its plasma levels. MCP-1-lowering effect of atorvastatin and fenofibrate did not correlate with the lipid-lowering potential of these agents. Our results suggest that atorvastatin and fenofibrate produce their antiinflammatory effect partially via inhibiting monocyte release of MCP-1. The treatment-induced reduction in its secretion may contribute to the clinical effectiveness of statins and fibrates in the therapy for atherosclerosis and other chronic fibroproliferative diseases.