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Tenascin-C is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that is supposed to be a profibrotic molecule in various fibrogenic processes. To elucidate its significance for myocardial fibrosis in the hypertensive heart, we used a mouse model with infusion of angiotensin II and examined results by histology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Angiotensin II treatment elevated blood pressure and expression of tenascin-C by interstitial fibroblasts in perivascular fibrotic lesions, and angiotensin II infusion caused accumulation of macrophages. It also upregulated expression of collagen Iα2; IIIα1; and proinflammatory/profibrotic mediators including transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGF-A), PDGF-B, and PDGF-receptor α, but not IL-1β and PDGF-receptor β, in the myocardium. Treatment with an aldosterone receptor antagonist, eplerenone, significantly attenuated angiotensin II-induced fibrosis, expression of tenascin-C, and inflammatory changes without affecting the blood pressure level. In vitro, neither eplerenone nor aldosterone exerted any influence on tenascin-C expression of cardiac fibroblasts, whereas angiotensin II, TGF-β1, and PDGF significantly upregulated expression of tenascin-C. These results suggest that, in the angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mouse heart: (1) tenascin-C may be involved in the progression of cardiac fibrosis and (2) aldosterone may elicit inflammatory reactions in myocardium, which might, in turn, induce tenascin-C synthesis of fibroblasts through at least 2 pathways mediated by TGF-β and PDGF-A-B/PDGF-receptor α.