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Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an endogenous adaptor protein that coordinates the inflammatory response to agonists of the Toll-like receptor and interleukin-1 receptor families. This particular response is activated following myocardial ischemia and infarction and may represent a viable target for pharmacologic inhibition. The current study tested MyD88 inhibitors in a murine model of nonreperfused acute myocardial infarction (AMI).AMI was induced by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery. Adult, male, Imprinting Control Region mice were randomized to daily injections with 1 of 2 MyD88 pharmacologic inhibitors (ST2825 25 mg/kg or IMG2005 1 mg/kg), saline, or pretreatment with MyD88-targeted silencing small interfering RNA (siRNA) or scrambled nontargeted siRNA (n = 6 for each group). Echocardiography was performed at baseline and 7 days after surgery to evaluate pathologic cardiac enlargement.Pharmacologic inhibition of MyD88 with ST2825 or IMG2005) and MyD88-targeted siRNA protected against left ventricular (LV) dilatation (reduced LV end-systolic and LV end-diastolic diameter) and hypertrophy. This protection occurred despite no measurable reduction in infarct size.Pharmacologic MyD88 inhibition protects against pathologic LV remodeling without altering infarct scar formation. MyD88 may be a viable target for pharmacologic inhibition in AMI.