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Cardiac ion channels play an essential role in the generation of the action potential of cardiomyocytes. Over the past 15 years, a new field of research called channelopathies has emerged; it regroups all diseases caused by ion channel dysfunction. Investigators have largely determined the physiological roles of cardiac ion channels, but little is known about the molecular determinants of their regulation. Two posttranslational mechanisms that are crucial in determining the fate of proteins are the ubiquitylation and the SUMOylation pathways, which lead to the degradation and/or regulation of modified proteins. Recently, several groups have investigated the physiological impacts of these mechanisms on the regulation of different classes of cardiac ion channels. The objective of this review was to summarize and briefly discuss these results.