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Human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC) are recruited to sites of neovascularization where they differentiate into endothelial cells. The signals/factors responsible for hEPC migration and adhesion to sites of injury are not well understood. Elevated levels of adenosine are known to increase mature endothelial cell migration in response to tissue injury. However, the understanding of the role of adenosine in the physiology of hEPC is very limited. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, we detected the expression of the adenosine receptors A2A, A2B, and A3 in hEPC. Stimulation of adenosine receptors using adenosine or the nonselective agonist adenosine-5'-N-ethylcarboxamide (NECA) increased hEPC migration in 1.4-fold and 2.1-fold (P < 0.01), respectively. Stimulation of hEPC using the A2A-specific agonist CGS-21680 resembled the effect observed in migration when using adenosine or NECA. Consequently, NECA and CGS-21680-stimulated migration of hEPC were reverted using the A2A receptor antagonist ZM-241385. NECA-stimulated migration was inhibited in dose-dependent manner using MRS-1523 (Ki of 147 ± 0.016 nM), MRS-1754 (Ki of 1900 ± 0.02 nM), or ZM-241385 (Ki of 0.2 ± 0.01 nM). In conclusion, adenosine stimulates hEPC migration by activating A2A and A3 but not A2B receptors and provides evidence to support a role of adenosine in modulating angiogenic capacity of hEPC.