Lung transplantation and concomitant cardiac surgery: Is it justified?

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Increasing numbers of lung transplant candidates have cardiac conditions that affect their survival after transplantation. Our objective was to determine if patients who undergo concomitant cardiac surgery (CCS) during the lung transplant procedure have similar outcomes, as a cohort of isolated lung transplant recipients.


This was a retrospective, observational, matched-cohort analysis. The records of lung transplant recipients who underwent CCS from August 2000 to August 2013 were reviewed. A cohort of isolated lung transplant recipients, matched on the basis of age, lung allocation score, diagnosis, type of procedure, and era, was identified. The primary endpoint of this trial was 5-year survival. The secondary endpoints were primary graft dysfunction, grade III, at 72 hours, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and 5-year major adverse cardiac event rates.


A total of 120 patients underwent lung transplantation and CCS. Compared with the isolated lung transplant group, the donor, recipient, and operation characteristics were similar. No difference was found in the survival of the 2 groups for up to 5 years, or in the incidence of primary graft dysfunction Grade III at 72 hours, intensive care unit length of stay, invasive ventilation, hospital length of stay, or incidence of 5-year major adverse cardiac events.


Lung transplant recipients undergoing CCS have early and midterm clinical outcomes similar to those of isolated lung transplant recipients. Given that this report is the largest published experience, offering cardiac surgery at the time of lung transplantation, to selected patients, remains justified.

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