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Trauma is the most important public health risk in wartime. Most preventive effort have addressed the political etiology of armed conflicts and the secondary effects of war (food, water, shelter, sanitation, and vector control). Little to no efforts have addressed the direct prevention and control of war trauma. An extensive review of the literature, with compilation of the most important data. Civilians are the major wartime targets in recent wars, and account for most of the killed and wounded. The trend has been toward a greater proportion of injuries from powerful explosive devices such as artillery shells and mines. Lessons learned from Bosnia and Lebanon show that the most effective way to achieve successful surveillance and injury prevention is to enhance the local skills and resources. New approaches are needed to minimize trauma to civilians. Both political advocacy and local efforts (including modifying firearms and ammunition, bullet proof helmets for children, anti-sniper shields) are needed.