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Although injury is the leading cause of cardiac arrests in children older than 1 year, few studies have examined the survival and functional outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in pediatric trauma patients.A historical cohort of 957 trauma patients younger than 15 years who received CPR at the scene of injury or at the admitting hospital was constructed on the basis of the National Pediatric Trauma Registry. The rate of survival to discharge and factors related to survival were examined. Functional impairments were documented for surviving patients.The overall survival rate was 23.5%. With adjustment for the Injury Severity Score, the risk of fatality after CPR increased for children with systolic blood pressure below 60 mm Hg at admission (odds ratio [OR] 24.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.6-69.3), for those who were comatose at admission (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.9-11.6), for those with penetrating injury (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.5-13.3), and for those with CPR initiated at the hospital (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-3.9). Surviving patients stayed in hospitals for an average of 24.3 days; at discharge, 64% had at least one impairment in the functional activities of daily living.Survival outcome of CPR in pediatric trauma patients appears to be comparable to that reported in adults of mixed arrest causes. Future research needs to identify factors underlying the excess mortality associated with penetrating trauma.