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Hemorrhage is a leading cause of death from trauma. An advanced hemostatic dressing could augment available hemostatic methods. We studied the effects of a new chitosan dressing on blood loss, survival, and fluid use after severe hepatic injury in swine.Swine received chitosan dressings or gauze sponges. Standardized, severe liver injuries were induced. After 30 seconds, dressings were applied and resuscitation initiated. Blood loss, hemostasis, resuscitation volume, and 60-minute survival were quantified.Posttreatment blood loss was reduced (p < 0.01) in the chitosan group (264 mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], 82–852 mL) compared with the gauze group (2,879 mL; 95% CI, 788–10,513 mL). Fluid use was reduced (p = 0.03) in the chitosan group (1,793 mL; 95% CI, 749–4,291) compared with the gauze group (6,614 mL; 95% CI, 2,519–17,363 mL). Survival was seven of eight and two of even in the chitosan and gauze groups (p = 0.04), respectively. Hemostasis was improved in the chitosan group (p = 0.03).A chitosan dressing reduced hemorrhage and improved survival after severe liver injury in swine. Further studies are warranted.