A Prospective, Randomized Evaluation of Intra-abdominal Pressures with Crystalloid and Colloid Resuscitation in Burn Patients

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Abstract

Background:

The volume of resuscitation in burn patients has been shown to correlate with intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Limiting volume may reduce consequences of IAP and abdominal compartment syndrome. Colloid resuscitation has been previously shown to limit the volume required initially after burn.

Methods:

Thirty-one patients were prospectively followed. Inclusion criteria were a burn of 25% total body surface area with inhalation injury or 40% total body surface area without. Patients received crystalloid (Parkland formula) or plasma resuscitation. IAP was measured by means of urinary bladder transduc-tion.

Results:

Mean age, area of burn, and baseline IAP were not different. Urine output was maintained. There was a greater increase in IAP with crystalloid (26.5 vs. 10.6 mm Hg, p < 0.0001). Two patients in the plasma group developed IAP greater than 25 mm Hg; only one patient in the crystalloid group maintained IAP less than 25 mm Hg. More fluid volume was required with crystalloid resuscitation, 0.26 L/kg, versus 0.21 L/kg (p < 0.005). Correlation was seen in both groups between volume of fluid and IAP (crystalloid, r2 = 0.351; plasma, r2 = 0.657; all patients, r2 = 0.621).

Conclusion:

Plasma-resuscitated patients maintained an IAP below the threshold of complications of intra-abdominal hypertension. This appears to be a direct result of the decrease in volume required. Lower fluid volume regimens should be given consideration as the incidence and consequences of intra-abdominal hypertension in burn patients continue to be defined.

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